Types of Steel – Grades and Properties

Before discussing types of steel, first, we have to know about steel. Steel is generally described as an alloy composed of iron and carbon and some other elements.  There is basically four grade of steel which is classified on the basis of the different amounts of carbon and other added elements composition.

types of steel

Types of steel:

Following are the four different types of steel and are as follows:

  1. Carbon Steel
  2. Alloy Steel
  3. Stainless Steel
  4. Tool Steel

Carbon Steel:

Carbon Steel is composed of Iron and Carbon and accounts for 90% of overall steel production. It is generally dull and matte in appearance and is vulnerable to corrosion to a large extent. Carbon steel is further divided into three types which are low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, and high carbon steel. Low carbon steel is the most common among the three and contains carbon up to or less than 30%. The next one is medium carbon steel which contains carbon up to 60% and contains some percent of manganese also. Medium carbon steel is much stronger than low carbon steel. The last one is High carbon steel in this category and contains carbon up to 1.5% and is the strongest among the three in this type.

Alloy Steel:

This steel also is known as tool steel, which is generally alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt and some other elements. This steel is generally used in the manufacturing of car parts, axles, drills, and other tools which need a sharp cutting edge. The process of alloying improves the hardening property of steel.

Stainless Steel:

These steels are generally shiny in nature are corrosion resistant and basically used in different products such as home appliances, cooking utensils. The corrosion property of this steel increases with the increase in the percentage of chromium content. Stainless steels can also be rolled in sheets. This steel is largely used as a construction material.

Tool steel:

These steels are well suited to be converted into tools and that’s why called tool steel. It mainly contains four major alloying elements which are tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, and vanadium in variant proportions. The tool steels are divided into six groups which are – water-hardening, cold-work, shock-resistant, high-speed, hot-work, and special purpose. These steels are used for cutting, pressing, extruding different metals and materials.

Last Words

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