What is Soil? | Different Types of Soil


What is SOIL?

Soil can be defined as a mixture of weathered rocks, minerals, humus, organic and inorganic matters. The formation of the soil generally takes a long period of time. Soil is formed by the natural process of disintegration and weathering of rocks under the action of nature and climate.


The soil is generally classified into four categories :

  1. Sandy soil
  2. Silty soil
  3. Clayey soil
  4. Loamy soil

Sandy Soil :

The first type of soil in this category is Sandy Soil. This soil has the largest particle size among the different soil types. This soil is called sandy soil because of its high sand content. It is among the poorest types of soil for the growth of vegetation because of low nutrient content and poor water holding capacity.

Silty Soil :

The second type of soil is Silty soil. This soil is called silty soil because of its high silt content ( more than 80%). Silt is originated when rock is eroded and weathered by the action of ice and water. This type of soil is generally found in rivers and water bodies. It is more fertile among the four categories of soil. So, this soil is preferred for agricultural practices.

Clayey Soil :

It contains the smallest particles among the four categories of soils. Particles are closely or tightly packed in this soil type. It has very good water storage property which results in the shrinkage of the soil in a dry state as compared to its wet state. The soil particle size less than 0.002 mm comes in this category.

Loamy Soil :

This is the fourth type in the soil category and is the combination of the sandy, silty, and clayey soil so that the beneficial properties from each soil are included in this soil. For example, this soil has the capability of retaining water and nutrients, hence suitable for vegetation growth.


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