Types of Cement Used in Construction Works

Types of CementCement of unique feature is manufactured by changing or altering the chemical composition of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), or by using additives and different raw materials.

Hence, each type of cement prepared has its properties and used for desired performance in a given environment.

In this article, I am describing various types of cement in detail. So, read the article till the end for complete information.

Types of Cement used in construction works

Various types of cement are used in concrete construction.  Each type has its properties, uses, and advantages.

Below is the list of 15 different types of Cement:

  1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
  2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
  3. Rapid Hardening Cement
  4. High Alumina Cement
  5. Super sulphated Portland Cement
  6. Sulphate Resisting Cement
  7. Portland Slag Cement
  8. Low Heat Cement
  9. Quick Setting Cement
  10. White Cement
  11. Hydrophobic Cement
  12. Expansive Cement
  13. Air Entraining Cement
  14. Colored Cement
  15. Blast Furnace Slag Cement

Portland Pozzolana Cement (IS: 1489 -Part I)

This cement is manufactured by inter grinding cement clinkers with 10-25% pozzolanic materials. Pozzolanic materials are essentially siliceous and aluminous compounds that in themselves do not possess any cementitious property, but when finely divided in the presence of water reacts with calcium hydroxide formed during hydration of cement resulting in the formation of a compound which possesses the cementitious property.

Properties:

  • Lower rate of development of strength.
  • Ultimate strength is comparable with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement).
  • High tensile strength.
  • High resistance to chlorides and sulfates.
  • Higher resistance against expansion.
  • Offers higher water tightness.
  • Evolves less heat during hydration.

Initial setting time:          30 minutes (minimum)

Final setting time:            10 hours(maximum)

Compressive strength at 3, 7, and 28 days should as follows:

  1. 72     ± 1 hour           ≤         10 N/mm2
  2. 168   ± 2 hours         ≤         16 N/mm2
  3. 672   ± 4 hours         ≤         33 N/mm2

Uses:

This cement is used in mass concrete such as dams and in places of high temperature as it has low heat evolution.

Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (IS:8041)

Rapid hardening Portland cement has high lime content and can be obtained by increasing the C3S content but is normally obtained from OPC clinker by finer grinding (450m2/kg).

The basis of the application of rapid hardening cement (RHC) is hardening properties and heat emission rather than setting rate. This permits the addition of a little more gypsum during manufacture to control the rate of setting.

RHC attains the same strength in one day which an ordinary cement may attain in 3 days. However, it is subjected to a large shrinkage and water requirement for workability is more.

The cost of rapid hardening cement is about 10 percent more than ordinary cement.

Concrete prepared with this type of Cement can be safely exposed to frost since it matures more quickly.

Properties:

Initial setting time:          30 minutes (minimum)

Final setting time:            10 hours(maximum)

Compressive strength:

1 day:                                  16.0 N/mm2
3 day:                                 27.5 N/mm2

Uses:

Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (RHC) is suitable for the repair of roads and bridges. Also used when the load is going to be applied in a short period of time.

High Alumina Cement (IS:6452)

This cement is not a type of Portland cement. It is manufactured by fusing 40 percent of bauxite, 40 percent of lime, 15 percent iron oxide with a little of ferric oxide, silica, magnesia, etc. at a very high temperature.

The alumina content in this cement should not be less than 32%. The resultant product is ground finely to form a fine powder.

Monocalcium aluminate is the main cement ingredient that interacts with water and forms dicalcium octahydrate hydro aluminate and aluminum oxide hydrate.

2(CaO.Al2O3.10H2O) + H2O = 2CaO.Al2O3.8H2O + 2Al(OH)2

Properties:

  1.  This cement does not set quickly.
  2. Initial setting time (minimum) in this type of cement is 30 minutes, even up to two hours.
  3. The final setting time in this cement should not exceed 10 hours (600 minutes).
  4. High early strength.
  5. High heat of hydration.
  6. Resistance to chemical attack.

Uses:

This type of cement is used where a structure is exposed to the action of seawater, acidic water, sulfates, and action of fire. In addition, this cement is widely used for precasting.

This cement should not be used in places where the temperature exceeds 18°C.

Super sulfated Portland Cement (IS:6909)

This cement is manufactured by inter grinding a mixture of granulated blast furnace slag not less than 70%, calcium sulfate, and a small amount of 33 grade of Portland cement. Tricalcium aluminate is less than 3.5% in this cement.

Properties:

  1. Water resistance of concrete from this cement is higher than that of common Portland cement.
  2. Low heat of hydration.
  3. Resistant to chemical attacks particularly sulfates.
  4. The initial setting time of this cement should not be less than 30 minutes.
  5. The final setting time of this cement should not be more than 10 hours (600 minutes).

Compressive strength at 3, 7, and 28 days should as follows:

  1. 72     ± 1 hour          ≤         15 N/mm2
  2. 168   ± 1 hour          ≤         22 N/mm2
  3. 672   ± 1 hour          ≤         30 N/mm2

Uses:

This type of cement is used for similar purposes as common Portland cement. Since this cement has higher water resisting property, it is preferred to be used in hydraulic engineering installations and in construction planned for service in moist media.

For example:

  • RCC pipes in groundwater,
  • Concrete structure in sulfate bearing soils,
  • Sewers carrying effluents.

Supersulphated portland cement should not be used in construction exposed to frequent freezing-and-thawing or moistening-and-drying conditions.

Sulfate Resisting Portland Cement (IS: 12330)

The amount of tricalcium aluminate is restricted to less than 5 percent in this cement and it results in the increase in resisting power against sulfate. To clarify, it should not be mistaken for Supersulphated cement.

Properties:

Initial setting time:          30 minutes (minimum)

Final setting time:            10 hours(maximum)

Compressive strength at 3, 7, and 28 days should as follows:

  1. 72     ± 1 hour           ≤         10 N/mm2
  2. 168   ± 2 hours         ≤         16 N/mm2
  3. 672   ± 4 hours         ≤         33 N/mm2

Uses:

The use of this cement is beneficial in concrete structures that are likely to be damaged by severe alkaline conditions such as canal linings, culverts, siphons, etc.

Portland Slag Cement (IS: 455)

This cement is manufactured by intimately inter grinding and uniform blending of a mixture of Portland cement clinker and finely ground granulated slag.

Properties:

  • The chemical requirements of this cement are the same as that of 33-grade portland cement.
  • The Specific surface should not be less than 225 m2/kg.
  • The expansion should not be more than 10mm and 0.8 percent when tested by Le Chatelier method and Autoclave test respectively.

Initial setting time:          30 minutes (minimum)

Final setting time:            10 hours(maximum)

Uses:

This cement can be used as an alternative for Ordinary Portland Cement. However, because of its low heat of hydration property, it can also be used for mass concreting in dams, foundations, etc.

Low Heat Cement

In this cement, a considerable amount of heat is produced during the setting action. This type of cement is used in order to reduce the amount of heat. It is produced by reducing proportions of tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) and C3S and increasing the proportion of dicalcium silicate (C2S) and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. The rate of development of strength is low in this cement but the ultimate strength is the same as that of OPC.

Properties:

  • Less heat is evolved.
  • The expansion should not be more than 10mm and 0.8 percent when tested by Le Chatelier method and Autoclave test respectively.

Initial setting time:          30 minutes (minimum)

Final setting time:            10 hours(maximum)

Compressive strength at 3, 7, and 28 days should as follows:

  1. 72     ± 1 hour           ≤         10 N/mm2
  2. 168   ± 2 hours         ≤         16 N/mm2
  3. 672   ± 4 hours         ≤         35 N/mm2

Uses:

This cement is most suitable for large mass concrete works such as dams, large raft foundations, etc.

Quick Setting Cement

This cement is produced by reducing the quantity of gypsum and adding a small percentage of aluminium sulfate.

Properties:

Initial setting time:          5 minutes

Final setting time:            30 minutes

Uses:

This cement is generally used in grouting operations and underwater concreting.

White Cement

White cement is manufactured from pure white chalk and clay free from coloring oxides of iron. Greyish color o0f cement is due to the presence of iron oxide. So, the amount of iron oxide is reduced and limited below 1 percent.

Properties:

  • Fineness = 395 m2/kg
  • Setting time = 100 min
  • The compressive strength of white cement is 90 percent of that of ordinary portland cement.

Uses:

  • Used for Terrazzo flooring
  • Face plaster of walls (stucco)
  • Ornamental works

Water Repellent Cement (IS: 8043)

Water repellent cement contains admixtures such as stearic acid, boric acid, and oleic acid which decrease the wetting ability of the cement grains and are mixed with ordinary portland cement during grinding of clinker. These admixtures form a thin film around the cement particles which prevents the entry of atmospheric moisture. These water repellent film formed around each particle reduce the rate of deterioration of cement due to storage as it avoids absorption of moisture from atmosphere by the cement particles.

Properties:

    • The specific surface should not be less than 350m2/kg.

The average compressive strength at 3, 7, and 28 days should not be less than:

  1. 72     ± 1 hour           ≤         15.29 N/mm2
  2. 168   ± 2 hours         ≤         21.57 N/mm2
  3. 672   ± 4 hours         ≤         30.40 N/mm2

Uses:

This cement is most suitable for basements and for making watertight concrete as it has greater water resistance and water impermeability.

Air Entraining Cement

This cement is manufactured by inter grinding Vinsol resin or vegetable fats and oils and fatty acids with ordinary cement. These materials have the property to entrain air from the atmosphere in the form of tiny air bubbles in concrete.

Properties:

  • Higher resistance against freezing and scaling action of salts.
  • Air entrainment improves the workability of concrete thus reducing the water-cement ratio which in turn reduces shrinkage, etc.

Uses:

This cement is used for the same purposes as that of Ordinary Portland Cement.

 

Conclusion:
I hope you got complete information about the Types of Cement in this article.If you found this article helpful, feel free to share it with your friends.

Leave a comment if I missed anything.

Happy Learning!!

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